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Lichen fungi belong to several different groups of fungi.
Most common (over 40%) are Ascomycetes, which produce spores in a sac-shaped container, the ascus.
This is because a lichen is not a separate organism in the sense of being one type of individual.
It is actually a close partnership between a fungus and an alga. The two types of organisms in the partnership are so closely interwoven that they appear as a single individual.
Only a few types of alga occur within lichens; these algae also have their own names.
A collection of lichen images is available through the Virtual Foliage page at the University of Wisconsin.
For more about lichens, try the list of resources prepared by the American Bryological and Lichenological Society, or visit the World of Lichenology by Clifford Smith.
If you're looking for a general introduction to lichen biology, you may also want to visit Lichen Land at Oregon State University.
And though internally toxic from vulpinic acid they can be used on external wounds and sores.
Most lichen are likable, but not exactly consumer friendly. Never eat unprepared and raw lichen unless your life truly depends upon it.